Sample Impact Fee Report
Impact fees allow communities to assess up-front costs on new homes as they are built in a community. They are intended to allow communities to levy a fee to offset the impact that a new household has on the ability of a library to sustain its service level. Such impact fees are far more workable in larger units of service. Impact fees are not legal in some states, and quite controversial in many others. Developers often oppose them and governing bodies have mixed responses.
This sample impact fee statement is based on an actual statement that generates fees in Wisconsin. You will need to check with your state laws to determine if the statements will work for your library, of course.
most states] impact fees cannot be used to close existing deficits.
The fees can only be used to maintain standards levels that are based on
the impact of new residents. Anywhereville
meets or exceeds all current state standards for library service, but new
residents will strain that capacity.
The assumptions used in this report lead to a recommended impact fee assessment of $526 per household.
needs assessment addresses only the Village Library and the needs associated
with serving the area until 2012 based on the development pattern discussed in
Chapter 2. If development occurs that is not discussed in Chapter 2, this needs
assessment should be revised. One Village wide fee was calculated as the one
library serves the entire Village. The residential development was projected
through the year 2012 with assistance from the Village and preliminary plats of
proposed development in the area. Development outside the Village limits, but
within the Library’s service territory is not considered in this report
because the Village does not have the ability to impose impact fees outside its
Village population for 2012 was estimated using the regional average of 2.88
persons per housing unit. Due to the high use of the library by non-Village
residents, a "non-resident population" was established using current
circulation information. The facility needed to serve the total resident and
non-resident population was determined and costs were estimated with the
assistance of the director of the library. The costs were apportioned and the
Village impact fee calculated. The fees were established based on 2000 expenses,
budgets, and cost estimates. In order to keep pace with inflation, the fees will
need to be adjusted on a yearly basis, using an appropriate cost index.
Village of Anywhereville is located in Southeastern Somewhere County. The
Village was incorporated in 1905. The Village itself had a population of
approximately 6,162. The Village
began as an area inhabited by Potawatomi Indians, who called the area “the
place of the bear.” By 1836 white
settlers appeared and Sewell Andrews built a log store and brought goods from
New York and Vermont, thus making Anywhereville a trade center servicing a
25-mile radius. Anywhereville
continued to develop, but was overshadowed by the faster development of
Milwaukee (30 miles east) and Somewhere(12 miles east.
Today, Anywhereville must meet the needs of a growing service population.
Somewhere County has become one of the fastest growing counties in the
state, with a great deal of this growth occurring west of Highway 83.
This service area is immediate to the Village of Anywhereville boundaries
and subsequently newcomers view Anywhereville as their source for their daily
Library is a member of the Somewhere County Federated Library System and serves
not only the residents of the Village but also residents in the surrounding
area. Anywhereville is a village of
approximately 5,800 people with a library service area of 17,500.
The immediate area that the library serves includes the Town of
Anywhereville, and parts of the Towns of Alpha,
Beta, and Gamma. The library is also available to all residents of Nearby and
Veryclose Counties. It provides
substantial services to the Towns of Omega and Epsilon in Nearby County. The
original library was located in one of the village churches and then moved to
one room of what is now the fire station. In
1957, it became the F. & J. Carnegie Public Library when the family donated
a former two-story residence for that purpose.
That building was on two stories with less than 2,000 sq. ft.
Prior to the most recent expansion in 1996, a needs assessment survey
indicated that the library needed to consist of 24,000 sq. ft., but the village
board cut the size to 12,200 because of a lack of funds.
In April of 1996, the library moved into its present facility of 12,200
sq. ft. The circulation went from 77,098 items in 1995 to 218,921 at
the end of 2000.
the Village has not levied an impact fee on new development. Therefore,
presently the Village does not have a method of financing costs associated with
the library expansion needed in order to properly serve the growing population.
This report and needs assessment was prepared by the Somewhere County Federated
Library System to assist the Village in developing an impact fee ordinance for
libraries that is in conformance with the requirements of Chapter 66.55 of the
Wisconsin Statutes. Substantial development is anticipated in the Village and
the cost of expanding the library to adequately serve the new development will
exceed the Village's ability to pay for this service.
documents were utilized in the preparation of this report. These include Library
- 1994 Annual Report, Wisconsin Library Building Project Handbook
(1991) by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, Wisconsin Public
Library Standards (2000) developed by the Division for Libraries,
Technology and Community Learning, Public Library Space Needs A Planning
Outline by Anders C. Dahlgren for the Wisconsin Department of Public
1970 to 1990, the population growth within the Village increased by 26.4
percent. Building permits in 1990 added 30 households and peaked in 199l with 94
new households. 1992 saw the beginning of a decline with only 40 new housing
permits. Now, in 1995, the Village is close to the saturation point barring
annexations with only 76 lots still available.
is far from true in the surrounding Town of Anywhereville, where new single
housing permits have increased since 1990, with this trend expected to continue.
population projection for the Village of Waterford was estimated using the
following table is the breakdown used to calculate population.
2.1 - Preliminary Plat Breakdowns
fees are not assessed on a per person basis, so the population was converted to
residential equivalent units (REU's) by dividing the population by the regional
average of 2.88 persons per housing unit. One housing unit is equal to one REU.
Therefore, the 637 additional units platted (from Table 2. I), calculated to an
additional population of 1,835, giving a projected population of 2,935 + 1,835 -
4,770. Table 2.2 shows that this growth is realistic compared to the growth in
the last few years.
Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission projects 2020 population for
the South Central Area at 38,300 for the intermediated growth rate.
For purposes of this report, it is assumed that about 7,000 of those
residents would be in the service territories of either the Big Bear or
Somewhere libraries and that the remaining 25,000 would be in the Anywhereville
Community Library service area.
population projection table here.]
There are, however, a large number of non-Village residents that use the library. An estimate of the non-residents population must be made to adequately size the library and its collection. Table 2.3 shows current circulation information.
data was used to estimate the non-resident population using the basic
assumptions that an average the proportion of circulation to population is the
same for residents and nonresidents and that the proportion of residents to
non-residents will remain the same as shown in Table 2.3.
the current design population is 2,935 + 4,078 or 7,013 persons. This is the
number that must be used when evaluating current deficiencies. The design
population for the year 2005 is 4,770 + 6,628 = 11,398. This number should be
used when determining necessary improvements.
current circulation table here]
original spaciousness of the library has gradually disappeared as more materials
have been added to the library collection. The limit may have been reached. Books fill all of the
shelves, and some books that the librarians would rather keep had to be
discarded to make space. There is no room available for proper display of the
video or audiocassettes,
is a definite lack of study rooms, which are often requested by library patrons.
Meeting room space is very limited, holding just 26 chairs.
Many groups who want to use it are turned away because it is heavily
booked. Storage space is very
minimum standards and the more expansive state materials standards indicate that
the collection needs to grow to accommodate an expanding population of users,
but there is no shelf space.
have been reduced to ___ and ___ study chairs have dropped to ___.
There are ___ lounge chairs and a round table for newspapers.
space is a bare minimum. A ________ foot area includes the director's office,
the desk of the children's librarian, the cataloging and processing areas, and
the staff/work table.
work area is very congested. Shelves
have gotten to the point of overflow, so the staff has put many items in storage
and sold many others. There
are ____ staff members all trying to share the same work area. The present
circulation desk is ___ square feet and is inadequate to function efficiently.
reference collection is housed on ___ linear feet of eight foot high shelving.
Every shelf is used and filled to capacity. The reference area has lacks
sufficient seating and computer workstation access for any patrons using that
children's department is next to the circulation desk without any visual or
sound barriers. When classes from school come to work at the library, the area
is overcrowded and becomes too noisy for other library users.
young adult books are in a corner of the children's space. The collection is
housed on ___ linear feet of shelf space in one bookcase at the end of a row of
juvenile books. Young adult paperbacks are placed along the tops of the low
entire collection is housed on ___ linear leet of shelving. Every shelf,
including top and bottom are used, and books are lined up on top of the seven
foot shelves. Current fiction is on low shelves below the level of convenient
inspection for adults. Adult paperbacks are shelved on ___ linear feet of eight
foot high wall shelving.
non-fiction collection takes up ____ linear feet of shelving. Oversized books
are on ___ linear feet of shelving.
library has ___ current magazines and __ newspapers. The magazines are on eight
foot high periodical shelving.
is limited space for popular AV materials, many of which are in storage.
that will be affected by growth include expenses such as library maintenance,
supplies, postage, children's programming, telephone expenses, equipment repair,
and material costs for periodicals, adult materials, and children's materials.
are design standards recommended by the Wisconsin Department of' Instruction
regarding collection size and space needed for libraries. The Appendix contains
the standards and a calculation for the existing and future population needs.
Table 3.2 is a summary of the space needs at present and in 2012.
future gross area needed was calculated based on the projected population of
25,000. This is the total of resident and non-resident users. The space to be
included in the cost estimates for the impact fee was calculated by taking the
space needed in 2012 and subtracting the existing (2000) space and deficiencies
(2000). The impact fee was calculated by dividing the total project cost by the
number of applicable REU's for the Village.
Statutes specifically prohibit application of the impact fee to eliminate
existing deficiencies. For that reason, the space needed to serve the existing
population was determined. Table 3.2 is a summary of the calculations for needed
space. The size of the collection needed to serve the population was calculated
and used to determine the needed space. The cost of' increasing the collection
size and items the library will need to properly serve the additional population
is included below and was compiled with the assistance of the library director.
for additional building and equipment costs for impact fee.
most recent state survey found that for libraries in the 10,000 to
25,000-population range the average square footage was 0.92.
This included quite a few inadequately sized facilities, of course, so a
range of 1 to 1.5 square feet per capita is realistic.
Using the state building specifications in the appendix, we calculated
that 40,208 square feet are needed for an extended service population of 25,000. That is about 1.6 square feet per capita.
Some of the space needed is fixed and not population sensitive, such as
administrative and mechanical space.
This needs assessment determined that a figure of 1.2 square feet per
capita was appropriate for impact fee calculation.
Assuming 2.88 residents per home, each household will add 3.45 square
feet to the needed facility. Current
construction costs would indicate between $100 and $150 for library building and
Appendix 1.1 State of Wisconsin Building Worksheet (Sheet1 of 3)
Some assume that electronic resources and the
Internet are reducing the space requirements in libraries.
The opposite is true. Computer
workstations take up more cubic feet of space than books and magazines by far.
The library is presently participating in a national study on electronic
resource assessment called “Counting for Results” with the Colorado Research
Center. Data from this report are
expected to help in planning efforts.
In addition to the numerical items below, the state recommends a
minimum for computer workstations at one for each 35 visitors per day.
At the current rate of 412 visits, that requires at least 13 public
access computer workstations – exactly the number now available.
Planning for expansion and peak loads should add at least another 15
workstations. That in turn would require another 1,500 or so square feet of
Assume service population of 25,000
Calculations are provided here based on Wisconsin
library standards for service area population and then assuming two different
populations for Anywhereville – 25,000 and 16,000. Current state library projections put the service population
at about 16,000. For building and
long range planning purposes, it is important to consider the impacts of
population growth. A population
served of closer to 25,000 is likely in the next 20 years.
Assume service population of 16,000
The chart below is provided for information purposes only at this point since the standards have not been approved by all 16 library boards and we have not yet reached the relevant year, 2002 for 2003 levy purposes. Boxes below indicate libraries that would be deficient on a measure in a given year at the current rate.
[Place chart of library comparison to state standards here]
"Capital costs" means the capital costs to construct, expand or
improve public facilities, including the cost of land, and including legal,
engineering and design costs to construct, expand or improve public facilities,
except that not more than 10% of capital costs may consist of legal, engineering
and design costs unless the political subdivision can demonstrate that its
legal, engineering and design costs which relate directly to the public
improvement for which the impact fees were imposed exceed 10% of capital costs.
"Capital costs" does not include other noncapital costs to
construct, expand or improve public facilities or the costs of equipment to
construct, expand or improve public facilities.
fees" means cash contributions, contributions of land or interests in land
or any other items of value that are imposed on a developer by a political
subdivision under this section.
(a) Subject to par. (am), a
political subdivision may enact an ordinance under this section that imposes
impact fees on developers to pay for the capital costs that are necessary to
accommodate land development.
(c) Beginning on
May 1, 1995, a political subdivision may impose and collect impact fees only
under this section.
(3) Public hearing; notice.
Before enacting an ordinance that imposes impact fees, or amending an
existing ordinance that imposes impact fees, a political subdivision shall hold
a public hearing on the proposed ordinance or amendment.
Notice of the public hearing shall be published as a class 1 notice under
ch. 985, and shall specify where a copy of the proposed ordinance or amendment
and the public facilities needs assessment may be obtained.
enacting an ordinance that imposes impact fees or amending an ordinance that
imposes impact fees by revising the amount of the fee or altering the public
facilities for which impact fees may be imposed, a political subdivision shall
prepare a needs assessment for the public facilities for which it is anticipated
that impact fees may be imposed. The
public facilities needs assessment shall include, but not be limited to, the
An identification of the new public facilities, or improvements or expansions of
existing public facilities, that will be required because of land development
for which it is anticipated that impact fees may be imposed.
This identification shall be based on explicitly identified service areas
and service standards.
(a) 3. A detailed
estimate of the capital costs of providing the new public facilities or the
improvements or expansions in existing public facilities identified in subd. 2.,
including an estimate of the effect of recovering these capital costs through
impact fees on the availability of affordable housing within the political
(5) Differential fees, impact fee zones.
(a) An ordinance
enacted under this section may impose different impact fees on different types
of land development.
(b) An ordinance
enacted under this section may delineate geographically defined zones within the
political subdivision and may impose impact fees on land development in a zone
that differ from impact fees imposed on land development in other zones within
the political subdivision. The
public facilities needs assessment that is required under sub. (4) shall
explicitly identify the differences, such as land development or the need for
those public facilities, which justify the differences between zones in the
amount of impact fees imposed.
(6) Standards for impact fees.
Impact fees imposed by an ordinance enacted under this section:
Shall be reduced to compensate for moneys received from the federal or
state government specifically to provide or pay for the public facilities for
which the impact fees are imposed.
(7) Low-cost housing. An
ordinance enacted under this section may provide for an exemption from, or a
reduction in the amount of, impact fees on land development that provides
low-cost housing, except that no amount of an impact fee for which an exemption
or reduction is provided under this subsection may be shifted to any other
development in the land development in which the low-cost housing is located or
to any other land development in the political subdivision.
(8) Requirements for impact fee revenues. Revenues
from impact fees shall be placed in a segregated, interest-bearing account and
shall be accounted for separately from the other funds of the political
subdivision. Impact fee revenues and interest earned on impact fee
revenues may be expended only for capital costs for which the impact fees were
(9) Refund of impact fees.
An ordinance enacted under this section shall specify that impact fees
that are imposed and collected by a political subdivision but are not used
within a reasonable period of time after they are collected to pay the capital
costs for which they were imposed shall be refunded to the current owner of the
property with respect to which the impact fees were imposed.
The ordinance shall specify, by type of public facility, reasonable time
periods within which impact fees must be spent or refunded under this
subsection. In determining the
length of the time periods under the ordinance, a political subdivision shall
consider what are appropriate planning and financing periods for the particular
types of public facilities for which the impact fees are imposed.
WHEREAS the Village Board of the Village of Anywhereville imposes impact
fees in accordance with Wis. Stat. § 66.0617 (formerly § 66.55) pursuant to
Anywhereville Municipal Code § ____; and
WHEREAS a separate impact fund for public library improvements exists
pursuant to Anywhereville Municipal Code § ____(6) which consists of impact
fees collected by the Village for the purpose of paying the capital costs of
public library improvements; and
WHEREAS Anywhereville Municipal Code § ____ authorizes the use of monies
collected per its terms for capital costs for new, expanded or improved public
facilities which are related to the effects of general population growth in the
Village of Anywhereville; and
WEIEREAS the Village of Anywhereville has experienced such population
growth within its system and has made necessary improvements to the Village's
public library system pursuant to Exhibit A, attached hereto and made a part
hereof by reference, in conformance with the Public Facilities Needs Assessment;
WHEREAS the capital costs for the expenditures shown on said exhibit were
paid by the Village of Anywhereville Public Library System from various accounts
as listed in said Exhibit A, and properly consist of public library system
improvements capital costs:
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED by the Village Board of the Village of
Anywhereville, that, pursuant to the above, $ __________shall be transferred
from the Village of Anywhereville Public Library Improvements Impact Fee Fund to
the Village of Anywhereville Public Library System Operating Account and
$_______shall be transferred from the Village of Anywhereville Public Library
Improvements Impact Fee Fund to the Village of Anywhereville Public Library
System Fundraising Account to reimburse the Library System for the capital costs
for public library improvements expended through___________, having made the
findings as follows: