Indiana Library Standards
The standards are part of the state administrative code and must be met
in order for a public library to receive state and federal aid.
For example, libraries in smaller communities must be open at
least 20 hours per week, including at least one evening hour and "some"
hours on weekends; the document also includes some non-required
Iowa. In Service to Iowa: Public
Library Measures of Quality.
Iowa’s standards are particularly well organized, comprehensive, clear,
and well adapted for use on the web.
Iowa's voluntary public library standards program was established to
document the condition of public library service in Iowa, to meet
statutory requirements, and to give public libraries a tool for
identifying strengths and areas for improvement.
In Service to Iowa, the standards program manual, is published by the
State Library and is based on the recommendations of the State Library
Standards Committee and the Iowa library community.
In this third edition of In Service to Iowa, 88 performance measures
outline quality library service in six major areas:
5. Public Relations
Quality Public Library Standards For Kansas.
Measurements of Quality: Public Library Standards for Kansas, Revised
1995 contains not only quantitative but also qualitative goals toward
which libraries should strive. The standards speak to the contributions
library services make to the lives and the vitality of our communities.
Minnesota Library Standards
Very detailed standards are provided.
For each general topic (staff, materials, etc.) there are three levels
of service standards: essential, enhanced, and excellent; includes
standards for customer service, includes a list of 34 necessary policies
each library should establish; includes a number of appendices, one of
which is a voluntary librarian certification program with detailed
philosophy competencies, public service competencies, technical services
competencies, technology competencies, and managerial competencies
New Hampshire State Library. Statewide
Library Development Standards
On June 19, 1998(?) the New Hampshire State Library Advisory Council
approved the release of a discussion draft of the proposed Public
Library Standards. This document is the first step in developing a
consensus document that the State Library can then submit to the formal
Administrative Rules process to enact new Standards. It is the intent of
the Advisory Council that this draft be widely distributed and
discussed. To that end Sue Palmatier, Library Development System
Coordinator, is prepared to meet with Area Library Forums, library
cooperatives, library organizations and individuals to listen to your
ideas and concerns. These standards are written as State Statutes.
New York State Library Standards
Library Development staff worked extensively with librarians, trustees
and other interested stakeholders for the better part of a decade to
update New York's 1950 public library standards. The Regents endorsed
five nonmonetary standards in 1989, but postponed adopting others until
the Local Library Services Aid program was put in place during 1993. On
December 17, 1993, the New York State Board of Regents adopted
amendments to section 90.2 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of
Education related to standards for registration of public, free
association and Indian libraries. The regulations became effective on
February 4, 1994.
The state administrative code includes minimum standards to be an
official public library, such as hours open per week for population.
to Information in the 21st Century: Every New York Library an Electronic
Doorway Library" includes 23 detailed recommendations for public
libraries to serve as electronic doorways to information.
The purpose is to ensure equity of access to electronic
information for all New Yorkers. Three
levels of Electronic Doorway Libraries (EDL) are: basic, advanced and
leader. (34% of the 7,000 libraries in the State*including school
libraries--have been recognized as an EDL to date)
North Carolina Library Standards
"guidelines" are straightforward.
There is not much explanatory or introductory information. The
site includes a number of prescriptive quantitative standards,
including: allocate at
least 2% of budget for staff continuing education, at least one FTE per
2000 service population, at least one-third FTE's are MLS librarians, at
least two staff on duty at all times, at least 5% of collection
withdrawn annually (excluding genealogy, local history materials),
"full service library facility" is open a minimum of 60
hours/week, all library services are available whenever the library is
open, at least one parking space per 200 sq. ft. of facility, one
workstation per 2500 service area population, at least one FTE computer
technician per 50 workstations, at least one staff member can talk to
computer technicians and perform basic troubleshooting
Rhode Island Public Library Standards
minimum standards are tied to the state aid program. National public
library standards were last issued by the American Library Association
in 1966 and do not accurately reflect the current challenges and
concerns of public libraries today.
Public library standards are criteria by which public libraries
are measured and evaluated. Such standards represent objective,
observable, and in most cases, quantitative measures -- measures that
indicate the parameters of good or adequate public library service.
Underlying public library standards are certain principles and beliefs
regarding the role of public libraries in a modern and free society and
certain principles and beliefs as to how public libraries can function
in this role. Thus, it is a synthesis of practice and principle that is
the true measure of a public library's worth. Public library standards
function to aid libraries and communities in improving and strengthening
library services. In addition, they serve as criteria for state and
federal public library funding.
Texas Library Association Ad Hoc Committee on Public Library
TLA ad hoc Committee on Public Library Standards was created by the TLA
Executive Board in January 1998 and charged with the creation of
qualitative and quantitative standards for public library service in
Texas. This Web page is intended to provide information about the
status of the work of this committee.
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction.
public library standards are voluntary and are established as one tool
to assist local libraries to plan for service improvements. Wisconsin's
public library standards are not related to a library's status as a
legal public library and are not related to library system membership
and Planning –
Periodical articles & reports
Ernest R. “Measurement
of Effectiveness of Public Library Service Study. A Report on Phases I
and II.” January
1971. Public Library
Association, Chicago, IL. (BBB01363); Bureau of Libraries and
Educational Technology (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. (BBB04004) ERIC#:
basic rationale for this study was that attempts to measure the service
capabilities of public libraries, either in relation to the needs of
their communities or to the standards adopted by the profession, are
hampered by the lack of criteria of quality or effectiveness. It was
recognized that new measures were needed to gauge effectiveness while
eliminating extraneous factors. Specifically, these two phases reported
upon here were designed to (1) identify measurement criteria which would
discriminate among public library services, (2) develop an operational
methodology whereby local librarians could collect the necessary data
for processing and refinement, and (3) demonstrate that the measurement
criteria could be put into a theoretical model which would provide a
professional basis for assessing the activity of basic programs. The
following criteria were studied: description of collection, building
usage, circulation, facilities usage, patterns of reference usage, and
public service personnel.
John. “Standards for
Public Libraries: A Study in Quantitative Measures of Library
Performance as Found in State Public Library Documents.” Public
Libraries v36 n1 p32-39 Jan-Feb 1997.
ISSN: 01635506 Discussion
of public library standards focuses on an examination of four
quantitative standards: hours of service, library resources, library
staff, and library operating budgets, to determine if any agreement
exists about them among states. Results indicate that there is no
consensus regarding public library standards or approaches to public
Daniel O. “Evaluating
Public Libraries Using Standard Scores: The Library Quotient.”
Library Research v4 n1 p51-70 Spr 1982.
Describes a method for assessing the performance of public
libraries using a standardized scoring system and provides an analysis
of public library data from New Jersey as an example. Library standards
and the derivation of measurement ratios are also discussed.
Renee; Glick, Andrea. “Professor
links library school students with `virtual' mentors.”
School Library Journal, Oct96, Vol. 42 Issue 10,
p18, 2/9p. Focuses on
library science professor Joy McGregor's course called `Librarians as
Instructional Partners' in which her students are linked with real-life
practitioners via the Internet. Benefits of using the Internet; Sample
exercises and activities.
Amy. “Current Issues
and Patterns in State Standards for Public Library Service.”
Public Libraries v31 n4 p213-22 Jul-Aug 1992
ISSN: 01635506. Explores
current patterns of recency, structure, intent, scaling, and planning
and measurement in state library standards. Ways that four
states--Oklahoma, Colorado, Utah, and Ohio--have adapted basic standards
elements are considered, and issues in linking planning and measurement
to standards are discussed. (MES)
Amy. Public Library
Standards: The Quest for Excellence. White House Conference on
Library and Information Services.
January 1, 1991. Paper
prepared for the White House Conference on Library and Information
Services (2nd, Washington, DC, July 9-13)
for public libraries have undergone dramatic changes in the last decade.
Traditional standards measured only "inputs," or what the
community put into the library in terms of staff, books, funding, etc.
However, these standards did not measure the services that the library
produced, and, as a result, the Public Libraries Association (PLA)
developed a series of publications that established a national standard
for the planning processes and output measures for public libraries. In
the mid-1980s the Public Library Development Program (PLDP) further
developed these concepts and introduced two new concepts: library roles
and nationally collected public library statistics. Although state
standards for public libraries are more diverse than national standards
as a result of each state's own unique context and their responses to
national guidelines, newly developing national and state standards offer
House, Nancy A. and Thomas Childers. "Dimensions of Public
Library Effectiveness II: Library Performance." Library
and Information Science Research 12:2 (April-June 1990) pp.
Terry L. “National Accreditation of Public Libraries: A Historical
Perspective. “Public Libraries v28 n2 p119-25 Mar-Apr
1989. Reviews the
history of proposals for accrediting public libraries nationally and
examines four distinct proposals made from 1960 to 1988. The discussion
addresses barriers to national accreditation of public libraries and the
prospects for the success of the most recent proposal of the Commission
for the Accreditation of Public Libraries.
Joseph L. “What Good Are Public Library Standards?“
Library Journal 95, 3, 455-462, 70 Feb 1.
More significant public library measurements and standards, and
better and prompter statistics on which to base them, are needed.
Suggestions for developing new standards are given.
and Planning - Monographs
Library Association, Public Libraries Division, Public Library
Service (Chicago: American Library Association, 1956)
Library Association, Public Libraries Division. Minimum Standards for
Public Library System (Chicago:
American Library Association, 1966)
Library Association, Public Library Association, The Public
Library Mission Statement and Its Imperatives for Service.
Chicago: American Library Association, 1979.
One of the pivotal documents in the change from standards to
output based standards.
Ruth W. and. Stoffel, Lester L., Public
Libraries in Cooperative Systems. Chicago: American Library
Ethel and Wilson, William James. Planning
for Results: A Public Library Transformation Process.
(Chicago: American Library Association, 1998)
Bernard, The Library's Public: A Report of the Public Library
York: Columbia University Press, 1949.
Carleton B. and Amy
Winslow, A National Plan for Public Library Service
(Chicago: American Library Association, 1948
Carleton B. The
Government of the American Public Library Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1935.
Robert D., The
Public Library in the United States.
New York: Columbia University Press, 1950.
Charles R., Amy Owen, Douglas L. Zweizig, Mary Jo Lynch, and Nancy A.
Van House, Planning
and Role Setting for Public Libraries. Chicago, IL: American
Library Association, 1987.
Associates for the PLA, Public Library Systems in the United
States: A Survey of Multijurisdictional Systems.
Chicago, IL: American Library Association, 1969.
Vernon E. et al., A
Planning Process for Public Libraries.
Chicago: American Library Association, 1980. This volume marked
the abandonment of standards in favor of planning for outputs.
Vernon E. and Marcia C.
Bellassai, To Satisfy Demand: A Study Plan for Public Library
Service in Baltimore County (Arlington, VA: Public
Research Institute, a division of the Center for Naval Analyses, 1977),
Redmond Kathleen and Dain, Phyllis;
The American Public Library in the Information Age. 1999.
The MIT Press. This
book explores the history, present circumstances and future prospects of
National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Toward a
National Program for Library and Information Services: Goals for Action.
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975.
House, Nancy A. and Thomas A. Childers, The Public Library
Effectiveness Study. Chicago, IL: American Library Association,